PREV2 + BCAAX Gym Stack

PREV2 + BCAAX Gym Stack

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Train Insane + Recovery Insane

  • PREV2™ Enhances Performance, Energy, and Blood Flow During Exercise
  • BCAAX™ Drives Recovery and Prevents Muscle Breakdown During Training
  • Train Hard, Recover Harder
  • Perfect Stack for Extreme Muscle Gains
  • Delicious Flavors
  • Clinical Dosing & Fully Transparent Labels


The Gym Stack features two of Purge Sports’ most popular products – the best pre workout in the game, PREV2™, and the most potent EAA & BCAA formula available, BCAAX™. Each product is a standout on their own merits, and together, they’re perfect for creating, and recovering from, the most intense workouts. We all know that training and nutrition go hand-in-hand. The Gym Stack puts PREV2™ in one hand and BCAAX™ in the other, covering all your bases.

  • PREV2™ provides an industry-leading 20 gram serving size, filled with efficaciously dosed, clinically-validated ingredients for high-octane workouts.
  • Intense workouts are the ultimate stimulus to drive lean gains, but they come with a price – muscle damage, soreness, and prolonged recovery times.
  • BCAAX™ combines fully-dosed BCAAs, EAAs, and leucine metabolite, HICA, for peak recovery rates and minimal muscle catabolism for huge net increases in muscle balance.
  • Using PREV2™ to fuel intense training sessions is complemented by using BCAAX™ for intra-workout muscle catabolism reduction.
Muscle growth and strength enhancement can come only from great training sessions, but those sessions can easily be “wasted” without the proper recovery agents. Everybody can train without a pre workout, but you can’t do great things when settling for less. Every ingredient in PREV2™ is research-proven and efficaciously dosed for unparalleled workouts. Recovery starts with proper nutrition, and proper nutrition involves consuming muscle-supporting amino acids during training with BCAAX™. Don’t waste another workout – get the Gym Stack.
Supp Facts
Pre V2™
Pre V2™
Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
  • In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
  • Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
  • Involved in the replication of DNA.
Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
  • Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
  • Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
  • Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
  • Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
  • Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and VLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Pump & Nutrient Absorption Complex
Citrulline Malate
If we were to rank essential pre workout ingredients, 6 grams of citrulline malate would be at the top of our list. Due to rapid arginine metabolism in the liver, citrulline is a better arginine and nitric oxide enhancer, and citrulline malate has been shown to increase training volume and blood flow.
  • May increase maximal training volume nearly 20%, and training volume is the strongest predictor of muscle hypertrophy.
  • Improves recovery time between sets, making workouts more efficient.
  • Scientific investigations on citrulline malate have observed that it improves ATP production during exercise over 30% while working synergistically with creatine to improve phosphocreatine resynthesis rates.
Arginine AKG
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid with a big role in cardiovascular health, particularly as it pertains to blood pressure, as it widens blood vessels and improves flow.
  • AKG stands for alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolic intermediate that helps promote ATP production
  • Arginine is used to produce nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase, which then dilates blood vessels and improves oxygen and nutrient delivery to working muscles, driving growth and pumps.
  • May assist in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and prevent muscle breakdown
  • A 2010 study conducted by Bailey et al. discovered supplemental arginine for 3 days was able to enhance nitric oxide production and decrease oxygen consumption (7%) while improving time to exhaustion by 25% in otherwise healthy men.
HydroMax® Glycerol Monostearate
Glycerol is the backbone of triglycerides, but with a single stearic acid group, it forms glycerol monostearate – a molecule that induces osmotic gradients.
  • In the muscle, glycerol monostearate draws in fluid, improving endurance and stamina by resisting dehydration and heat stress.
  • For resistance training, this effect creates a muscle full effect, engorging the muscle with fluid for cellular swelling hypertrophy.
Taurine has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, to higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that taurine is a great ingredient to include in any dietary protocol.
  • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
  • Baek and colleagues (2012) found taurine to increase rates of angiogenesis (creation of new blood vessels), and this effect is enhanced even more in the presence of beta-alanine.
Agmatine Sulfate
Agmatine Sulfate helps improve nutrient partitioning which leads to an increase in muscle glycogen (carbs stored in muscle tissues) which then leads to more water retained WITHIN the muscle. This creates a fuller look to the muscles and a greater pump while hitting the iron.
  • Agmatine Sulfate also increases NO production by working as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, nitric oxide synthase.
  • There are studies to suggest that the nutrient partitioning effects of agmatine sulfate are possibly due to its ability to increase the insulin response to carbohydrates. This could be further explained by the increased blood flow to the muscle that occurs with increased NO production.
  • LH and GH levels have been shown to be increased through the effects of Agmatine Sulfate and its possible effects on the hypothalamus.
  • Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
Ornithine HCl
Ornithine is a metabolite of arginine in an alternate pathway to nitric oxide. Providing ornithine reduces arginine’s conversion to ornithine, leaving more available for NO boosting.
  • A 2008 study conducted by Sugino et al. discovered supplementation with ornithine was able to reduce perceptions of fatigue to 52% of placebo on a prolonged endurance test and was able to reduce ammonia accrual during exercise.
  • Limiting ammonia production doesn’t just decrease perceptions of fatigue, but actually permits longer and more intense training bouts.
  • Works synergistically with arginine, citrulline, and other NO boosters for greater total vasodilatory effects.
  • Infusions of ornithine have increased growth hormone.
A combination of Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng, AstraGin has been validated to enhance nutrient absorption.
  • Increases genetic expression of nutrient transporters along the intestinal wall
  • Enhances amino acid absorption by 41% and leucine absorption by 58%
Energy & Endurance Complex
Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.
  • Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
  • A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found beta-alanine supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
  • Long term supplementation with beta alanine has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.
Trimethylglycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
Methylation is a key regulator in genetic expression. With tri methyl glycine (aka betaine) 3 methyl groups are provided, which has been observed to play a role in liver detoxification, neurotransmitter production, and, most importantly, enhanced physical work capacity and muscular power output.
  • Improves muscle strength and accelerates muscle recovery
  • May improve the mind-muscle connection
  • Studies show that betaine supplementation improves bench press power by 20%.
Caffeine Anhydrous
Caffeine is the world’s most popular supplement. It is capable of many things, including increasing metabolic rate and thermogenesis, boosting fat oxidation, enhancing pain tolerance, and improving athletic performance.
  • One study in trained athletes found improved power output (7%) and total work performed (8.5%) compared to placebo. More power and more work equals more gains.
  • Supplementation with 400mg caffeine (the amount in RIPTX) has been found to increase thermogenesis by 300 Calories per day – potentially eliminating an entire day’s worth of calories over a 1 week span.
  • Can improve endurance performance up to 40%.
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate
Infinergy™ provides all of the same great benefits as caffeine anhydrous. However, it’s specialized form with malic acid affords it the benefit of having no crash or jitters.
  • Adrenaline, fat oxidation, performance, no crash!
Neuro Focus Complex
L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that adrenaline – which are typically produced during acute stress and “fight or flight” scenarios.
  • Adrenaline is quickly depleted during stressful moments due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
  • Supplements including L-tyrosine and caffeine can maintain reaction time and improve subjective feelings of focus and alertness following exhaustive exercise.
  • Structurally similar to thyroid hormones and may help in their formation.
N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (Eria Jarensis)
From Eria Jarensis, N- Phenylethyldimethylamine is believed to produce effects comparable to 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) due to structural similarities. Due to its novelty, reports thus far are anecdotal.
  • Enhances mood and focus while providing feelings of euphoria
  • Boosts Fat Loss
Hordenine HCl
Found in plants like barley and citrus fruits, hordenine increases free adrenaline by acting as a noradrenaline reuptake inhinitor.
  • Can increase metabolism and blood flow.
  • Works synergistically with caffeine. Caffeine releases adrenaline, and hordenine keeps adrenaline actibe.
  • Improves contractility of the heart for better blood flow and nutrient delivery.
Niacin (vitamin B3) is required to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD performs the same function as FAD and may also slow aging.
  • Improves blood flow and vascularization.
  • Prevents pellagra.
  • May delay onset of age-related diseases.
  • Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and VLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Vitamin B6
Like the other B’s, B6 is heavily involved in energy metabolism. It is a cofactor in over 100 reactions, many of which within the muscle, where it helps with glycogen utilization.
  • Enhances muscle glycogen access and use.
  • Involved in heme synthesis.
  • Supports brain development and function.
Vitamin B12
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
  • In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
  • Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
  • Involved in the replication of DNA.
Anabolic Muscle Rebuilding Complex
Branched-Chain Amino Acids
The branched chain amino acids include leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Their branched structure predisposes them to oxidation in the muscle, but leucine is the primary nutrient acting as an anabolic signal, activating mTOR and protein synthesis.
  • The amino acid leucine is the most potent nutritional signal for increase muscle protein synthesis (Norton, 2012).
  • Research comparing different dietary leucine contents have observed that leucine is directly related to lean muscle mass and indirectly related to fat mass, meaning more leucine translates to more muscle and less fat over time.
HICA (α-hydroxyisocaproic acid) is a metabolite of leucine. Similar to other leucine metabolites (e.g., KIC & HMB), HICA aids in the resistance of muscle damage and breakdown.
  • Just 4 weeks of HICA supplementation has been found to increase lean body mass and reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) by tipping the scales in favor of anabolism (Mero et al., 2010).
  • May influence HMG-CoA reductase to maintain cell membrane integrity
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body. It contributes to several muscular anabolic processes, gut function, and immunity.
  • Can independently stimulate muscle protein synthesis
  • Used for replenishing muscle glycogen after exhaustive exercise, especially when low-carb
  • Lehmkuhi et al. (2003) observed that glutamine and creatine supplementation for 8 weeks increased lean body mass and power output.
Purge EAA Complex
Essential Amino Acids
There are 9 essential amino acids (EAA), which includes the 3 BCAAs. Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body, and therefore, must be obtained in the diet. The BCAAs are primarily responsible for signaling an increase in protein synthesis, yet all EAA are required to form muscle tissues.
  • A recent study by Wilkinson et al. (2017) found 1.5g of EAA (with just 0.6g leucine) to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis – an amount no different from 40g whey protein. BCAAX™ contains over 7g EAA.
  • Just 6g of EAA after exercise have also been shown to increase muscle anabolism post-exercise, promoting recovery and growth.
  • EAA supplementation during a caloric deficit helps preserve muscle mass while promoting greater rates of fat loss.
A combination of Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng, AstraGin® has been validated to enhance nutrient absorption.
  • Increases genetic expression of nutrient transporters along the intestinal wall
  • Enhances amino acid absorption by 41% and leucine absorption by 58%
Cellular Hydration & Recovery Complex
Taurine has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, to higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that taurine is a great ingredient to include in any dietary protocol.
  • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
  • Baek and colleagues (2012) found taurine to increase rates of angiogenesis (creation of new blood vessels), and this effect is enhanced even more in the presence of beta-alanine.
  • May reduce rates of cramping, especially if cramps are being caused by stimulants.
Coconut Water & Electrolytes
Coconut water and electrolytes help accelerate recovery of essential bodily fluids to maintain proper cellular functioning and athletic performance.
  • A study comparing carbs + electrolyte vs. aminos + electrolyte found greater cellular rehydration with the amino + electrolyte blend, which also contained more potassium and magnesium (Tai, et al., 2014).
  • Coconut water has been suggested to be a superior rehydration beverage than both carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks and plain water by equally restoring body fluids and being easier to drink (Saat et al., 2002).
Q: Why Should PREV2™ & BCAAX™ be Used Together?
A: The ultimate stimulus for improving body composition is work put in at the gym. The more work you can do, the more gains you obtain. PREV2™ makes every session more effective with performance and energy enhancers, but intense workouts also require a greater degree of recovery. This is why PREV2™ and BCAAX™ are a perfect match. BCAAX™ enhances muscle protein synthesis while simultaneously suppressing muscle protein breakdown for greater net positive protein balance and enhanced recovery.
Q: What is the Best Way to Use the Gym Stack?
A: As dietary supplements, PREV2™ is best used by mixing 1 scoop in 8-16oz of water and consuming 20-30 minutes before training, and BCAAX™ is best used as an intra-workout with 1 scoop mixed in 8-12 oz of water and consumed throughout training. Lean athletes over 220 lbs may want to use 1.5-2 scoops of BCAAX™ per session to fully saturate the muscles with amino acids.

Q: Is it Safe to Use More Than One Serving of PREV2™ or BCAAX™ per Day?
A: PREV2™ is a full-strength pre workout with ~362 mg of caffeine per serving and other stimulant ingredients, such as hordenine. Therefore, we caution athletes against taking more than 1 serving per day. However, BCAAX™ can be consumed multiple times per day. The amino acids in BCAAX™ maximally stimulate protein synthesis, which must be reinitiated after approximately 3 hours by more amino acids or a protein-based meal, and perhaps more frequently during and post-workout. BCAAX™ provides a convenient anabolic stimulus whenever a good protein source cannot be consumed.
Citrulline Malate
  1. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
  2. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
  3. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
  4. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
Arginine AKG
  1. Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Li, X., Xu, H., Kong, X., … & Wu, G. (2009). Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino acids, 37(1), 169-175.
  2. Huk, I., Nanobashvili, J., Neumayer, C., Punz, A., Mueller, M., Afkhampour, K., … & Patton, S. (1997). L-arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation, 96(2), 667-675.
  3. Yao, K., Yin, Y. L., Chu, W., Liu, Z., Deng, D., Li, T., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary arginine supplementation increases mTOR signaling activity in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. The Journal of nutrition, 138(5), 867-872.
  4. Jobgen, W., Meininger, C. J., Jobgen, S. C., Li, P., Lee, M. J., Smith, S. B., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces white fat gain and enhances skeletal muscle and brown fat masses in diet-induced obese rats. The Journal of nutrition, jn-108.
  5. Tseh, W., Cioci, B. W., & Morgan, D. W. (2008). The Effects of Arginine Alpha-ketoglutarate Supplementation on Endurance-trained Females. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise40(5), S401.
  6. Rector, T. S., Bank, A. J., Mullen, K. A., Tschumperlin, L. K., Sih, R., Pillai, K., & Kubo, S. H. (1996). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure. Circulation93(12), 2135-2141.
  7. Morikawa, E., Moskowitz, M. A., Huang, Z., Yoshida, T., Irikura, K., & Dalkara, T. (1994). L-arginine infusion promotes nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and reduces infarction volume in the rat. Stroke25(2), 429-435.
  8. Gardiner, S. M., Compton, A. M., Bennett, T., Palmer, R. M., & Moncada, S. (1990). Control of regional blood flow by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Hypertension15(5), 486-492.
HydroMax® Glycerol Monostearate
  1. Bartos, J. (2013). A uniquely optimized, highly concentrated powdered form of glycerol delivering next-level hydration and next-gen product potential http://astromicnutrition.com/HydroMax_WhitePaper.pdf
  2. Riedesel, M. L., Allen, D. Y., Peake, G. T., & Al-Qattan, K. (1987). Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(6), 2262-2268.
  3. Lyons, T. P., Riedesel, M. L., Meuli, L. E., & Chick, T. W. (1990). Effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration prior to exercise in the heat on sweating and core temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 477-483.
  4. Goulet, E. D., Robergs, R. A., Labrecque, S., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2006). Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25 C environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(2), 101-109.
  5. Montner, P., Stark, D. M., Riedesel, M. L., Murata, G., Robergs, R., Timms, M., & Chick, T. W. (1996). Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time. International journal of sports medicine, 17(1), 27-33.
Agmatine Sulfate
  1. Ahn, S. K., S. Hong, et al. (2011). “Effects of agmatine on hypoxic microglia and activity of nitric oxide synthase.” Brain Res 1373: 48-54.
  2. Arndt, M. A., V. Battaglia, et al. (2009). “The arginine metabolite agmatine protects mitochondrial function and confers resistance to cellular apoptosis.” Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(6): C1411-1419.
  3. Berkels, R., D. Taubert, et al. (2004). “Agmatine signaling: odds and threads.” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 22(1): 7-16.
  4. Gao, Y., B. Gumusel, et al. (1995). “Agmatine: a novel endogenous vasodilator substance.” Life Sci 57(8): PL83-86.
  5. Haenisch, B., I. von Kugelgen, et al. (2008). “Regulatory mechanisms underlying agmatine homeostasis in humans.” Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295(5): G1104-1110.
  6. Halaris, A. and J. Plietz (2007). “Agmatine: metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.” CNS Drugs 21(11): 885-900.
  7. Thams, P., & Capito, K. (1999). L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide. European Journal of Endocrinology140(1), 87-93.
  8. Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.
Ornithine HCl
  1. Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., & Kajimoto, O. (2008). L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism. Nutrition research, 28(11), 738-743.
  2. Evain‐Brion, D., Donnadieu, M., Roger, M., & Job, J. C. (1982). Simultaneous study of somatotrophic and corticotrophic pituitary secretions during ornithine infusion test. Clinical endocrinology17(2), 119-122.
  3. MacLean, D. A., Spriet, L. L., Hultman, E., & Graham, T. E. (1991). Plasma and muscle amino acid and ammonia responses during prolonged exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology70(5), 2095-2103.
  4. Sahlin, K., Katz, A., & Broberg, S. (1990). Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology259(5), C834-C841.
  1. Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
  2. Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc42(6), 1162-1173.
  3. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 5.
  4. Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(5), 1199-1207.
  5. Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(7), 1804-1815.
  6. Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(1), 79-87.
  7. Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise43(10), 1972-1978.
  8. Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients4(10), 1441-1453.
Trimethylglycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
  1. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., … & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
  2. Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
  3. Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., … & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
  4. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
  5. Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., … & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
Caffeine Anhydrous
  1. Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., & Glickman, E. L. (2011). The effects of low-dose caffeine on perceived pain during a grip to exhaustion task. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(5), 1225-1228.
  2. Bell, D. G., & McLellan, T. M. (2002). Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. Journal of Applied Physiology93(4), 1227-1234.
  3. Schneiker, K. T., Bishop, D., Dawson, B., & Hackett, L. P. (2006). Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent-sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise38(3), 578-585.
  4. Del Coso, J., Salinero, J. J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 21.
  5. Anderson, D. E., & Hickey, M. S. (1994). Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise26(4), 453-458.
  6. Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., & Madsen, M. R. (2006). Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75‐year old citizens. A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over study. Clinical endocrinology65(2), 223-228.
  7. Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition51(5), 759-767.
Infingergy® (Dicaffeine Malate)
  1. Sommerfeld, A., & Witherly, S. (2014). S. Patent No. 8,642,095. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition38(3), 429-435.
  2. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
  3. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin21(3), 473-477.
  4. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry17(7), 781-790.
  5. Hoffman, J. R., Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Tranchina, C. P., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2009). Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 2.
N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (Eria Jarensis)
  1. Zovico, P. V. C., Curty, V. M., Leal, M. A. S., Meira, E. F., Dias, D. V., de Melo Rodrigues, L. C., ... & Barauna, V. G. (2016). Effects of controlled doses of Oxyelite Pro on physical performance in rats. Nutrition & metabolism13(1), 90.
  2. Bloomer, R. J., Mccarthy, C. G., Farney, T. M., & Harvey, I. C. (2011). Effect of caffeine and 1, 3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. Journal of Caffeine Research1(3), 169-177.
Hordenine HCl
  1. Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
  2. Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
  3. Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., … & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
  1. Elam, M. B., Hunninghake, D. B., Davis, K. B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., … & Brinton, E. (2000). Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: a randomized trial. Jama,284(10), 1263-1270.
  2. Goldberg, A., Alagona, P., Capuzzi, D. M., Guyton, J., Morgan, J. M., Rodgers, J., … & Samuel, P. (2000). Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. The American journal of cardiology, 85(9), 1100-1105.
  3. Guyton, J. R. (2007). Niacin in cardiovascular prevention: mechanisms, efficacy, and safety. Current opinion in lipidology, 18(4), 415-420.
  4. Blond, E., Rieusset, J., Alligier, M., Lambert-Porcheron, S., Bendridi, N., Gabert, L., ... & Roth, H. (2014). Nicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro study. Hormone and Metabolic Research46(06), 390-396.
Vitamin B6
  1. Denner, L. A., & Wu, J. Y. (1985). Two forms of rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase differ in their dependence on free pyridoxal phosphate. Journal of neurochemistry44(3), 957-965.
  2. Zhuo, J. M., & Praticò, D. (2010). Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet. Experimental gerontology45(3), 195-201.
  3. RICHERT, D. A., & SCHULMAN, M. P. (1959). Vitamin interrelationships in heme synthesis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition7(4), 416-425.
  4. Hedrick, J. L., & Fischer, E. H. (1965). On the Role of Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate in Phosphorylase. I. Absence of Classical Vitamin B6—dependent Enzymatic Activities in Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase. Biochemistry4(7), 1337-1343.
  5. OKADA, M., ISHIKAWA, K., & WATANABE, K. (1991). Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on glycogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle, heart, and liver of rats. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology37(4), 349-357.
Vitamin B12
  1. Woolf, K., & Manore, M. M. (2006). B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism16(5), 453-484.
  2. Paulin, F. V., Zagatto, A. M., Chiappa, G. R., & de Tarso Müller, P. (2017). Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respiratory medicine122, 23-29.
  3. Lukaski, H. C. (2004). Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition20(7-8), 632-644.
  4. Lövblad, K. O., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., & Schroth, G. (1997). Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B 12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatric radiology27(2), 155-158.
  5. Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Keith, G., & Dirheimer, G. (1991). Effect of cobalamin derivatives on in vitro enzymic DNA methylation: methylcobalamin can act as a methyl donor. Biochemistry30(32), 8045-8051.
Branched-Chain Amino Acids
  1. Shimomura, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Bajotto, G., Sato, J., Murakami, T., Shimomura, N., ... & Mawatari, K. (2006). Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. The Journal of nutrition136(2), 529S-532S.
  2. Norton, L. E., Wilson, G. J., Layman, D. K., Moulton, C. J., & Garlick, P. J. (2012). Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats. Nutrition & metabolism9(1), 67.
  3. Wilkinson, D. J., Bukhari, S. S., Phillips, B. E., Limb, M. C., Cegielski, J., Brook, M. S., ... & Lund, J. (2017). Effects of leucine-enriched essential amino acid and whey protein bolus dosing upon skeletal muscle protein synthesis at rest and after exercise in older women. Clinical Nutrition.
  4. Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
  5. Katsanos, C. S., Kobayashi, H., Sheffield-Moore, M., Aarsland, A., & Wolfe, R. R. (2006). A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism291(2), E381-E387.
  6. Norton, L. E., Wilson, G. J., Rupassara, I., Garlick, P. J., & Layman, D. K. (2009). Leucine contents of isonitrogenous protein sources predict post prandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in rats fed a complete meal.
  1. Tischler, M. E., Desautels, M., & Goldberg, A. L. (1982). Does leucine, leucyl-tRNA, or some metabolite of leucine regulate protein synthesis and degradation in skeletal and cardiac muscle?. Journal of Biological Chemistry257(4), 1613-1621.
  2. Mero, A. A., Ojala, T., Hulmi, J. J., Puurtinen, R., Karila, T. A., & Seppälä, T. (2010). Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition7(1), 1.
  3. Walser, M., Lund, P., Ruderman, N. B., & Coulter, A. W. (1973). Synthesis of essential amino acids from their α-keto analogues by perfused rat liver and muscle. The Journal of clinical investigation52(11), 2865-2877.
  4. Nissen, S. L., & Abumrad, N. N. (1997). Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB). The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry8(6), 300-311.
  1. Welbourne, T. C. (1995). “Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load”. The American journal of clinical nutrition 61 (5): 1058–1061.
  2. Morlion, B. J.; Stehle, P.; Wachtler, P.; Siedhoff, H. P.; Köller, M.; König, W.; Fürst, P.; Puchstein, C. (1998). “Total Parenteral Nutrition with Glutamine Dipeptide After Major Abdominal Surgery”. Annals of Surgery 227 (2): 302–308.
  3. Lee, W. J.; Hawkins, R. A.; Viña, J. R.; Peterson, D. R. (1998). “Glutamine transport by the blood-brain barrier: A possible mechanism for nitrogen removal”. The American journal of physiology 274
  4. Todorova, V. K., Kaufmann, Y., Luo, S., & Klimberg, V. S. (2011). Tamoxifen and raloxifene suppress the proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative cells through inhibition of glutamine uptake. [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.]. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 67(2), 285-291.
  5. Bowtell, J. L., Gelly, K., Jackman, M. L., Patel, A., Simeoni, M., & Rennie, M. J. (1999). Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology,86(6), 1770-1777.
Essential Amino Acids
  1. Rasmussen, B. B., Tipton, K. D., Miller, S. L., Wolf, S. E., & Wolfe, R. R. (2000). An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. Journal of applied physiology88(2), 386-392.
  2. Volpi, E., Kobayashi, H., Sheffield-Moore, M., Mittendorfer, B., & Wolfe, R. R. (2003). Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition78(2), 250-258.
  3. Tipton, K. D., Ferrando, A. A., Phillips, S. M., Doyle Jr, D., & Wolfe, R. R. (1999). Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism276(4), E628-E634.
  4. Paddon-Jones, D., Sheffield-Moore, M., Zhang, X. J., Volpi, E., Wolf, S. E., Aarsland, A., ... & Wolfe, R. R. (2004). Amino acid ingestion improves muscle protein synthesis in the young and elderly. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism286(3), E321-E328.
  5. Paddon-Jones, D., Sheffield-Moore, M., Urban, R. J., Sanford, A. P., Aarsland, A., Wolfe, R. R., & Ferrando, A. A. (2004). Essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation ameliorates muscle protein loss in humans during 28 days bedrest. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism89(9), 4351-4358.
  6. Coker, R. H., Miller, S., Schutzler, S., Deutz, N., & Wolfe, R. R. (2012). Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals. Nutrition journal11(1), 105.
  1. AstraGin Product Dossier, Sections 6.4 – 6.17
  2. Lu L., et al. Astragalus polysaccharides decrease muscle wasting through Akt/mTOR, ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy signaling in 5/6 nephrectomised rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;186:125-135
  1. Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
  2. Bouchama, A., Yusuf, A., Al-Sedairy, S., & El-Yazigi, A. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke. Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
  3. Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
  4. Baek, Y. Y., Cho, D. H., Choe, J., Lee, H., Jeoung, D., Ha, K. S., ... & Kim, Y. M. (2012). Extracellular taurine induces angiogenesis by activating ERK-, Akt-, and FAK-dependent signal pathways. European journal of pharmacology674(2-3), 188-199.
  5. Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.
  6. Yatabe, Y., Miyakawa, S., Miyazaki, T., Matsuzaki, Y., & Ochiai, N. (2003). Effects of taurine administration in rat skeletal muscles on exercise. Journal of orthopaedic science8(3), 415-419.
Coconut Water & Electrolytes
  1. Tai, C. Y., Joy, J. M., Falcone, P. H., Carson, L. R., Mosman, M. M., Straight, J. L., ... & Moon, J. R. (2014). An amino acid-electrolyte beverage may increase cellular rehydration relative to carbohydrate-electrolyte and flavored water beverages. Nutrition journal13(1), 47.
  2. Saat, M., Singh, R., Sirisinghe, R. G., & Nawawi, M. (2002). Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water. Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science21(2), 93-104.
  3. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Krieger, D. R., & Bloomer, R. J. (2012). Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 1.
  4. Maughan, R. J., Owen, J. H., Shirreffs, S. M., & Leiper, J. B. (1994). Post-exercise rehydration in man: effects of electrolyte addition to ingested fluids. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology69(3), 209-215.
  5. Stand, A. P. (2009). Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and science in sports and exercise39(2), 377-390.
California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.
WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/