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Stim-Free Fat Burner


  • Stimulant-Free
  • Increases Metabolic Rate
  • Stimulates Lipolysis
  • Improves Fat and Carb Metabolism
  • Reduces Fat Storage
  • Clinical Dosing
  • Fully Transparent Label


Muscle underneath body fat LOOKS like body fat. It’s a crying shame, but it’s true. Diet and exercise are essential to achieve that coveted, chiseled look, but it’s no secret anymore that the pros are all getting an edge on top of maintaining a clean lifestyle, and more stimulants (caffeine) are not always the answer. How can you accelerate fat loss without feeling anxious, jittery, or just too damn energetic from caffeine and other stimulants? You get THERMX™

  • Non-Stim Formula Prevents Anxiety and Jitters, Won’t Keep You Up at Night
  • 3,5-Diiodo L-Thyronine (T2 Hormone) Stimulates All Known Aspects of Fat Loss, and Helps Maintain Muscle
  • GBB Increases Thermogenesis to the Point that You WILL Sweat!
  • ForsLean® Pulls Fatty Acids Out of Body Fat Stores so They Can Be Eliminated
  • CapsiAtra® Blocks New Body Fat Storage
THERMX™ is a premium, non-stimulant fat burner and thermogenic. Even if you like caffeine and other stimulants, occasionally cycling off of stimulants helps reduce adrenal fatigue and maintains caffeine’s ability to keep working long term. THERMX™ is the perfect choice to keep shedding body fat while maintaining caffeine sensitivity. THERMX™ is also the perfect choice for 24-hour fat burning without disrupting important sleep cycles. Take THERMX™ in the afternoon or evening to keep burning calories all day long!
Supp Facts
Chromium is an essential mineral with a role in insulin regulation and glucose management. It affects chromodulin, which improves its ability to enhance insulin receptor activity.
  • Improves efficiency of insulin to reduce both blood levels of insulin and glucose.
  • The enhanced glucose management likely is responsible for observed weight loss effects of chromium.
  • Reduces carbohydrate cravings and binge eating.
Iodine is a mineral mostly found in seaweed and other saltwater plants. Due to great benefits to thyroid health, iodine is added to salt, though current dietary trends may still produce insufficient intake.
  • Iodine is a principal component of thyroid hormones, such as triiodothyronine (T3), which regulate body weight.
  • May enhance IGF-1, as iodine deficiency reduces growth factor concentrations.
  • High levels of T3 are often associated with fat loss.
L-Carnitine (as Acetyl L-Carnitine and L-Carnitine Tartrate)
L-Carnitine is a dipeptide of lysine and methionine. It plays a critical role in energy regulation between cells and mitochondria.
  • Helps fatty acids cross the mitochondrial matrix membrane so they may be utilized for ATP production.
  • Decreases fatigue and improves athletic performance.
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine is unique in its ability to cross the blood brain barrier, improving cognition and focus.
ForsLean® Forskolin
Forskolin from Coleus Forskohlii is capable of activating the molecular targets, adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP), which result in favorable effects of forskolin supplementation.
  • Supplementation has been proven to reduce fat mass.
  • May increases anabolism and muscle hypertrophy by increasing free testosterone.
  • Activates lipolysis.
Olive Leaf Extract
Olive Extracts contain a bioactive called oleuropein and oleanolic acid which improve several aspects of metabolism.
  • Olive leaf extract supplementation increases carbohydrate tolerance by decreasing carbohydrate absorption.
  • Oleuropein may increase metabolic rate.
  • Sensitizes the body to thyroid hormones, which improves their ability to promote body fat loss.
Grains of Paradise
Otherwise known as Aframomum melegueta, Grains of Paradise contains 6-paradol, which activates heat receptors and stimulates brown adipose tissue.
  • Increases energy expenditure by ~400 kilojoules per day.
  • Activates “fat-burning fat” brown adipose tissue.
  • A study examining the effects of Aframomum melegueta has found a 300% increase in testosterone in male rats after 8 days and may inhibit estrogen.
GBB (Gamma-butyrobetaine ethyl ester chloride)
GBB is a natural precursor to L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine is required to transport fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane so they may be burned off. L-Carnitine is also a capable performance enhancer and recovery aid.
  • May increase carnitine levels more effectively than carnitine supplementation due to better absorption.
  • Increases diaphoresis (sweating) as a result of huge boosts to calorie burn.
  • Known muscle soreness and damage reducing effects.
  • Increasing muscle carnitine is associated with a loss of fat mass.
CapsiAtra™ is a dihydrocapsiate compound naturally found in CH-19 Sweet peppers that holds clinical benefits in weight management, endurance, and metabolism.
  • CapsiAtra™ has the ability to increase resting energy expenditure (REE) – allowing the body to burn off more calories than normal, and stimulate thermogenesis.
  • It also enhances glycogen sparing, promoting an increase in energy production through the burning off of fat stored within the body instead of carbohydrates.
  • Galgani et al. (2010) discovered subjects who supplemented with Dihydrocapsiate over a one-month period were able to increase their resting metabolic rate on a daily basis compared to placebo.
3,5-Diiodo L-Thyronine
A big function of 3,5 is to stimulate the resting metabolic rate - which is the rate at which your body burns calories at rest.
  • The T2 thyroid hormone stimulates all aspects of body fat loss.
  • Helps maintain muscle mass.
  • Studies have shown that body weight has been significantly reduced significantly in short periods of time.
Q: What is the best way to use RIPTX™?
A: RIPTX™ is an extremely potent fat burner and thermogenic. If you are new to fat burners, begin with 1/2 serving (1/2 scoop, 2.25g) to assess tolerance. Afterwards, take 1 serving (1 scoop, 5.5g) first thing in the morning. For aggressive weight loss, take a second serving 4-6 hours after the morning dose. Do not exceed more than 2 servings per day. Do not take within 8 hours of bed time. For best results, use for 4 weeks with 2 weeks off before beginning another 4 week cycle.
Q: What other Purge Supps products should be used with RIPTX™?
A: For the best improvements in total body composition, use RIPTX™ with PREV2™ pre workout for the best training experience and BCAAX™ during workouts to prevent loss of muscle while in a cutting phase.
Q: What are some of the ingredients in RIPTX™ that create synergistic fat loss?
A: Many of the ingredients in RIPTX™ work together for a result greater than the sum of its parts. By addressing specific molecular mechanisms deep below the surface, RIPTX sets itself apart from other fat burners. For example, Rauwolscine improves the effects of caffeine to limit caffeine tolerance and keep it working for greater periods of time than caffeine alone. RIPTX™collectively increases, not just calories burned but, calories burned from BODY fat, while most fat burners just make you tweak out!
  1. Król, E., Krejpcio, Z., Byks, H., Bogdański, P., & Pupek-Musialik, D. (2011). Effects of chromium brewer’s yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients. Biological trace element research143(2), 726-737.
  2. Racek, J., Trefil, L., Rajdl, D., Mudrova, V., Hunter, D., & Senft, V. (2006). Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological trace element research109(3), 215-230.
  3. Aghdassi, E., Arendt, B. M., Salit, I. E., Mohammed, S. S., Jalali, P., Bondar, H., & Allard, J. P. (2010). In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Current HIV Research8(2), 113-120.
  4. Kim, C. W., Kim, B. T., Park, K. H., Kim, K. M., Lee, D. J., Yang, S. W., & Joo, N. S. (2011). Effects of short-term chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry22(11), 1030-1034.
  5. Docherty, J. P., Sack, D. A., Roffman, M., Finch, M., & Komorowski, J. R. (2005). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®11(5), 302-314.
  1. Paul, T., Meyers, B., Witorsch, R. J., Pino, S., Chipkin, S., Ingbar, S. H., & Braverman, L. E. (1988). The effect of small increases in dietary iodine on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental37(2), 121-124.
  2. Gardner, D. F., Centor, R. M., & Utiger, R. D. (1988). Effects of low dose oral iodide supplementation on thyroid function in normal men. Clinical endocrinology28(3), 283-288.
  3. Teas, J., Braverman, L. E., Kurzer, M. S., Pino, S., Hurley, T. G., & Hebert, J. R. (2007). Seaweed and soy: companion foods in Asian cuisine and their effects on thyroid function in American women. Journal of medicinal food10(1), 90-100.
  4. Alikaşifoğlu, A., Ozön, A., & Yordam, N. (2002). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiency. The Turkish journal of pediatrics44(3), 215-218.
RIPTX™ Metabolic Matrix
L-Carnitine (as Acetyl L-Carnitine and L-Carnitine Tartrate)
  1. Wall, B. T., Stephens, F. B., Constantin‐Teodosiu, D., Marimuthu, K., Macdonald, I. A., & Greenhaff, P. L. (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of l‐carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. The Journal of physiology589(4), 963-973.
  2. Jacobs, P. L., Goldstein, E. R., Blackburn, W., Orem, I., & Hughes, J. J. (2009). Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 9.
  3. Volek, J. S., Judelson, D. A., Silvestre, R., Yamamoto, L. M., Spiering, B. A., Hatfield, D. L., ... & Kraemer, W. J. (2008). Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults. The American journal of cardiology102(10), 1413-1417.
  4. Cao, Y., Qu, H. J., Li, P., Wang, C. B., Wang, L. X., & Han, Z. W. (2011). Single dose administration of L-carnitine improves antioxidant activities in healthy subjects. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine224(3), 209-213.
  5. Cuturic, M., Abramson, R. K., Moran, R. R., & Hardin, J. W. (2010). Clinical outcomes and low-dose levocarnitine supplementation in psychiatric inpatients with documented hypocarnitinemia: a retrospective chart review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®16(1), 5-14.
ForsLean® Forskolin
  1. Godard, M. P., Johnson, B. A., & Richmond, S. R. (2005). Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obesity research13(8), 1335-1343.
  2. Henderson, S., Magu, B., Rasmussen, C., Lancaster, S., Kerksick, C., Smith, P., ... & Almada, A. (2005). Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition2(2), 54.
  3. Alasbahi, R. H., & Melzig, M. F. (2012). Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP. Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences67(1), 5-13.
  4. Burns, T. W., Langley, P. E., Terry, B. E., Bylund, D. B., & Forte Jr, L. R. (1987). Comparative effects of forskolin and isoproterenol on the cyclic AMP content of human adipocytes. Life sciences40(2), 145-154.
  5. Litosch, I., Hudson, T. H., Mills, I., Li, S. Y., & Fain, J. N. (1982). Forskolin as an activator of cyclic AMP accumulation and lipolysis in rat adipocytes. Molecular pharmacology22(1), 109-115.
  • Riche, D. M., Riche, K. D., Blackshear, C. T., McEwen, C. L., Sherman, J. J., Wofford, M. R., & Griswold, M. E. (2014). Pterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2014.
  • Al Rahim, M., Rimando, A. M., Silistreli, K., & El-Alfy, A. T. (2013). Anxiolytic action of pterostilbene: involvement of hippocampal ERK phosphorylation. Planta medica79(09), 723-730.
  • Joseph, J. A., Fisher, D. R., Cheng, V., Rimando, A. M., & Shukitt-Hale, B. (2008). Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry56(22), 10544-10551.
BioPerine® Piperine
  1. Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph₁, T., Rajendran, M. M. R., & Srinivas, P. S. S. R. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta medica64, 353-356.
  2. Bajad, S., Bedi, K. L., Singla, A. K., & Johri, R. K. (2001). Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice. Planta medica67(02), 176-179.
  3. Ononiwu, I. M., Ibeneme, C. E., & Ebong, O. O. (2002). Effects of piperine on gastric acid secretion in albino rats. African journal of medicine and medical sciences31(4), 293-295.
Mood Support & Appetite Control
  1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition38(3), 429-435.
  2. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
  3. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin21(3), 473-477.
  4. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry17(7), 781-790.
  5. Hoffman, J. R., Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Tranchina, C. P., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2009). Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 2.
N-Phenylethyldimethylamine HCl
  1. Zovico, P. V. C., Curty, V. M., Leal, M. A. S., Meira, E. F., Dias, D. V., de Melo Rodrigues, L. C., ... & Barauna, V. G. (2016). Effects of controlled doses of Oxyelite Pro on physical performance in rats. Nutrition & metabolism13(1), 90.
  2. Bloomer, R. J., Mccarthy, C. G., Farney, T. M., & Harvey, I. C. (2011). Effect of caffeine and 1, 3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. Journal of Caffeine Research1(3), 169-177.
TeaCrine® Theacrine
  1. Ziegenfuss, T. N., Habowski, S. M., Sandrock, J. E., Kedia, A. W., Kerksick, C. M., & Lopez, H. L. (2017). A two-part approach to examine the effects of theacrine (TeaCrine®) supplementation on oxygen consumption, hemodynamic responses, and subjective measures of cognitive and psychometric parameters. Journal of dietary supplements14(1), 9-24.
  2. Kalman, D. J., Joyner, K. J., & Bloomer, R. J. (2015). Cognitive performance and mood following ingestion of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement, caffeine, or placebo by young men and women. Nutrients7(11), 9618-9632.
  3. Wang, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Li, J., Ye, C., & Song, X. (2010). Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Fitoterapia81(6), 627-631.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
  1. Brock, R. W., Tschakovsky, M. E., Shoemaker, J. K., Halliwill, J. R., Joyner, M. J., & Hughson, R. L. (1998). Effects of acetylcholine and nitric oxide on forearm blood flow at rest and after a single muscle contraction. Journal of Applied Physiology85(6), 2249-2254.
  2. Witzemann, V., Schwarz, H., Koenen, M., Berberich, C., Villarroel, A., Wernig, A., ... & Sakmann, B. (1996). Acetylcholine receptor ɛ-subunit deletion causes muscle weakness and atrophy in juvenile and adult mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences93(23), 13286-13291.
  3. Zhao, Q., & Tang, X. C. (2002). Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine. European journal of pharmacology455(2-3), 101-107.
  4. Gul, A., Bakht, J., & Mehmood, F. (2018). Huperzine-A response to cognitive impairment and task switching deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association.
RIPTX™ Energy & TAG Release Matrix
Caffeine Anhydrous
  1. Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., & Glickman, E. L. (2011). The effects of low-dose caffeine on perceived pain during a grip to exhaustion task. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(5), 1225-1228.
  2. Bell, D. G., & McLellan, T. M. (2002). Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. Journal of Applied Physiology93(4), 1227-1234.
  3. Schneiker, K. T., Bishop, D., Dawson, B., & Hackett, L. P. (2006). Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent-sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise38(3), 578-585.
  4. Del Coso, J., Salinero, J. J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 21.
  5. Anderson, D. E., & Hickey, M. S. (1994). Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise26(4), 453-458.
  6. Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., & Madsen, M. R. (2006). Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75‐year old citizens. A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over study. Clinical endocrinology65(2), 223-228.
  7. Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition51(5), 759-767.
Infingergy® (Dicaffeine Malate)
  1. Sommerfeld, A., & Witherly, S. (2014). S. Patent No. 8,642,095. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  1. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2008). The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biological psychology77(2), 113-122.
  2. Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., ... & Rho, S. S. (2011). A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of medicinal food14(4), 334-343.
  3. Zarse, K., Jabin, S., & Ristow, M. (2012). L-Theanine extends lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. European journal of nutrition51(6), 765-768.
  4. Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods3(3), 171-178.
  5. Einöther, S. J., Martens, V. E., Rycroft, J. A., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness. Appetite54(2), 406-409.
Green Coffee Bean Extract
  1. Cropley, V., Croft, R., Silber, B., Neale, C., Scholey, A., Stough, C., & Schmitt, J. (2012). Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology219(3), 737-749.
  2. Van Dijk, A. E., Olthof, M. R., Meeuse, J. C., Seebus, E., Heine, R. J., & Van Dam, R. M. (2009). Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care32(6), 1023-1025.
  3. Thom, E. (2007). The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. Journal of International Medical Research35(6), 900-908.
  4. Sato, Y., Itagaki, S., Kurokawa, T., Ogura, J., Kobayashi, M., Hirano, T., ... & Iseki, K. (2011). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. International journal of pharmaceutics403(1-2), 136-138.
  1. Perry, B. D., & U'Prichard, D. C. (1981). [3H] Rauwolscine (α-yohimbine): a specific antagonist radioligand for brain α2-adrenergic receptors. European journal of pharmacology76(4), 461-464.
  2. Rockhold, R. W., & Gross, F. (1981). Yohimbine diastereoisomers: Cardiovascular effects after central and peripheral application in the rat. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology315(3), 227-231.
  3. Arthur, J. M., Casańas, S. J., & Raymond, J. R. (1993). Partial agonist properties of rauwolscine and yohimbine for the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by recombinant human 5-HT1A receptors. Biochemical pharmacology45(11), 2337-2341.
RIPTX™ Thermogenic Matrix
  1. Kato, E., Kimura, S., & Kawabata, J. (2017). Ability of higenamine and related compounds to enhance glucose uptake in L6 cells. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry25(24), 6412-6416.
  2. Lee, S. R., Schriefer, J. M., Gunnels, T. A., Harvey, I. C., & Bloomer, R. J. (2013). Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects. Lipids in health and disease12(1), 148.
  3. Liu, W., Sato, Y., Hosoda, Y., Hirasawa, K., & Hanai, H. (2001). Effects of higenamine on regulation of ion transport in guinea pig distal colon. The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology84(3), 244-251.
  4. Nojima, H., Okazaki, M., & Kimura, I. (2000). Counter effects of higenamine and coryneine, components of aconite root, on acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminal in mice. Journal of Asian natural products research2(3), 195-203.
Paradoxine® Grains of Paradise
  1. Riera, C. E., Menozzi‐Smarrito, C., Affolter, M., Michlig, S., Munari, C., Robert, F., ... & Le Coutre, J. (2009). Compounds from Sichuan and Melegueta peppers activate, covalently and non‐covalently, TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. British journal of pharmacology157(8), 1398-1409.
  2. Massoma Lembè, D., Gasco, M., Rubio, J., Yucra, S., Ngo Sock, E., & Gonzales, G. F. (2011). Effect of the ethanolic extract from Fagara tessmannii on testicular function, sex reproductive organs and hormone level in adult male rats. Andrologia43(2), 139-144.
  3. El-Halawany, A. M., El Dine, R. S., Chung, M. H., Nishihara, T., & Hattori, M. (2011). Screening for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of plants growing in Egypt and Thailand. Pharmacognosy research3(2), 107.
  4. Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Uchiwa, H., ... & Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition110(4), 733-738.
GBB (Gamma-butyrobetaine ethyl ester chloride)
  1. Bach, A. (1982). Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals. Reproduction, nutrition, developpement22(4), 583-596.
  2. Bremer, J. (1983). Carnitine--metabolism and functions. Physiological reviews63(4), 1420-1480.
  3. Strijbis, K., Vaz, F. M., & Distel, B. (2010). Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway. IUBMB life62(5), 357-362.
  4. Pistone, G., Marino, A. D., Leotta, C., Dell’Arte, S., Finocchiaro, G., & Malaguarnera, M. (2003). Levocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue. Drugs & aging20(10), 761-767.
  5. Malaguarnera, M., Cammalleri, L., Gargante, M. P., Vacante, M., Colonna, V., & Motta, M. (2007). l-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial–. The American journal of clinical nutrition86(6), 1738-1744.
  6. Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., French, D. N., Rubin, M. R., Sharman, M. J., Gomez, A. L., ... & Hakkinen, K. (2003). The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research17(3), 455-462.
  7. Jacobs, P. L., & Goldstein, E. R. (2010). Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition7(1), 35.
  8. Jacobs, P. L., Goldstein, E. R., Blackburn, W., Orem, I., & Hughes, J. J. (2009). Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 9.
Octopalean™ Octopamine
  1. Visentin, V., Morin, N., Fontana, E., Prévot, D., Boucher, J., Castan, I., ... & Carpéné, C. (2001). Dual action of octopamine on glucose transport into adipocytes: inhibition via β3-adrenoceptor activation and stimulation via oxidation by amine oxidases. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics299(1), 96-104.
  2. Flechtner-Mors, M., Jenkinson, C. P., Alt, A., Adler, G., & Ditschuneit, H. H. (2002). In vivo α1-adrenergic lipolytic activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics301(1), 229-233.
  3. Fontana, E., Morin, N., Prévot, D., & Carpéné, C. (2000). Effects of octopamine on lipolysis, glucose transport and amine oxidation in mammalian fat cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology125(1), 33-44.
  4. Marti, L., Morin, N., Enrique-Tarancon, G., Prevot, D., Lafontan, M., Testar, X., ... & Carpéné, C. (1998). Tyramine and vanadate synergistically stimulate glucose transport in rat adipocytes by amine oxidase-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics285(1), 342-349.
California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.
WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/