- Improves Blood Flow and Muscle Pumps
- Increases Power and Strength
- Enhances Energy, Mood, and Focus
- Boosts Training Volume for More Gains
- Promotes Body Fat Oxidation
- Amazing Taste (Flavor Guide!)
- Clinical Dosing & Fully Transparent Labels
Purge Sports’ PREV2™ is the ultimate pre workout training enhancer. Our promise to bring you nothing but absolute supplement perfection holds true with the strongest pre workout ever formulated. There are 3 core requirements for pre workout products – they need to provide energy, massive pumps, and better workouts. PREV2™ contains at least 5 ingredients for EACH of these goals, taking advantage of multiple biological processes and metabolic pathways to ensure dominance. Here’s just a snapshot of PREV2’s™ expansive profile:
- 6 Grams of Citrulline Malate Boosts Nitric Oxide and Increases Training Volume
- 3.2 Grams of Beta-Alanine Improves Fatigue Resistance and Buffering Ability
- 1.5 Grams of HydroMax® Amplifies Intramuscular Fluid Volume for Huge Pumps
- 1.5 Grams of Betaine Enhances Power Output and Muscular Work Capacity
- 375 Milligrams of Total Caffeine from Anhydrous & Infinergy® for Intense Energy
With just the 5 ingredients described, PREV2™ is among the best. But that’s not nearly all. PREV2™ features 11 more ingredients at full-strength doses! That all translates into more performance enhancement, greater energy boosts, and bigger pumps. We can’t stress this enough. PREV2™ is not just a better product – it’s the best pre workout science has to offer. Don’t miss out on another great workout. Try PREV2™ today.
Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
- In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
- Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
- Involved in the replication of DNA.
Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
- Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
- Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
- Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
- Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
- Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and VLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Pump & Nutrient Absorption Complex
If we were to rank essential pre workout ingredients, 6 grams of citrulline malate would be at the top of our list. Due to rapid arginine metabolism in the liver, citrulline is a better arginine and nitric oxide enhancer, and citrulline malate has been shown to increase training volume and blood flow.
- May increase maximal training volume nearly 20%, and training volume is the strongest predictor of muscle hypertrophy.
- Improves recovery time between sets, making workouts more efficient.
- Scientific investigations on citrulline malate have observed that it improves ATP production during exercise over 30% while working synergistically with creatine to improve phosphocreatine resynthesis rates.
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid with a big role in cardiovascular health, particularly as it pertains to blood pressure, as it widens blood vessels and improves flow.
- AKG stands for alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolic intermediate that helps promote ATP production
- Arginine is used to produce nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase, which then dilates blood vessels and improves oxygen and nutrient delivery to working muscles, driving growth and pumps.
- May assist in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and prevent muscle breakdown
- A 2010 study conducted by Bailey et al. discovered supplemental arginine for 3 days was able to enhance nitric oxide production and decrease oxygen consumption (7%) while improving time to exhaustion by 25% in otherwise healthy men.
HydroMax® Glycerol Monostearate
Glycerol is the backbone of triglycerides, but with a single stearic acid group, it forms glycerol monostearate – a molecule that induces osmotic gradients.
- In the muscle, glycerol monostearate draws in fluid, improving endurance and stamina by resisting dehydration and heat stress.
- For resistance training, this effect creates a muscle full effect, engorging the muscle with fluid for cellular swelling hypertrophy.
Taurine has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, to higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that taurine is a great ingredient to include in any dietary protocol.
- Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
- Baek and colleagues (2012) found taurine to increase rates of angiogenesis (creation of new blood vessels), and this effect is enhanced even more in the presence of beta-alanine.
Agmatine Sulfate helps improve nutrient partitioning which leads to an increase in muscle glycogen (carbs stored in muscle tissues) which then leads to more water retained WITHIN the muscle. This creates a fuller look to the muscles and a greater pump while hitting the iron.
- Agmatine Sulfate also increases NO production by working as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, nitric oxide synthase.
- There are studies to suggest that the nutrient partitioning effects of agmatine sulfate are possibly due to its ability to increase the insulin response to carbohydrates. This could be further explained by the increased blood flow to the muscle that occurs with increased NO production.
- LH and GH levels have been shown to be increased through the effects of Agmatine Sulfate and its possible effects on the hypothalamus.
- Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
Ornithine is a metabolite of arginine in an alternate pathway to nitric oxide. Providing ornithine reduces arginine’s conversion to ornithine, leaving more available for NO boosting.
- A 2008 study conducted by Sugino et al. discovered supplementation with ornithine was able to reduce perceptions of fatigue to 52% of placebo on a prolonged endurance test and was able to reduce ammonia accrual during exercise.
- Limiting ammonia production doesn’t just decrease perceptions of fatigue, but actually permits longer and more intense training bouts.
- Works synergistically with arginine, citrulline, and other NO boosters for greater total vasodilatory effects.
- Infusions of ornithine have increased growth hormone.
A combination of Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng, AstraGin has been validated to enhance nutrient absorption.
- Increases genetic expression of nutrient transporters along the intestinal wall
- Enhances amino acid absorption by 41% and leucine absorption by 58%
Energy & Endurance Complex
Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.
- Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
- A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found beta-alanine supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
- Long term supplementation with beta alanine has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.
Trimethylglycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
Methylation is a key regulator in genetic expression. With tri methyl glycine (aka betaine) 3 methyl groups are provided, which has been observed to play a role in liver detoxification, neurotransmitter production, and, most importantly, enhanced physical work capacity and muscular power output.
- Improves muscle strength and accelerates muscle recovery
- May improve the mind-muscle connection
- Studies show that betaine supplementation improves bench press power by 20%.
Caffeine is the world’s most popular supplement. It is capable of many things, including increasing metabolic rate and thermogenesis, boosting fat oxidation, enhancing pain tolerance, and improving athletic performance.
- One study in trained athletes found improved power output (7%) and total work performed (8.5%) compared to placebo. More power and more work equals more gains.
- Supplementation with 400mg caffeine (the amount in RIPTX) has been found to increase thermogenesis by 300 Calories per day – potentially eliminating an entire day’s worth of calories over a 1 week span.
- Can improve endurance performance up to 40%.
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate
Infinergy™ provides all of the same great benefits as caffeine anhydrous. However, it’s specialized form with malic acid affords it the benefit of having no crash or jitters.
- Adrenaline, fat oxidation, performance, no crash!
Neuro Focus Complex
L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that adrenaline – which are typically produced during acute stress and “fight or flight” scenarios.
- Adrenaline is quickly depleted during stressful moments due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
- Supplements including L-tyrosine and caffeine can maintain reaction time and improve subjective feelings of focus and alertness following exhaustive exercise.
- Structurally similar to thyroid hormones and may help in their formation.
N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (Eria Jarensis)
From Eria Jarensis, N- Phenylethyldimethylamine is believed to produce effects comparable to 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) due to structural similarities. Due to its novelty, reports thus far are anecdotal.
- Enhances mood and focus while providing feelings of euphoria
- Boosts Fat Loss
Found in plants like barley and citrus fruits, hordenine increases free adrenaline by acting as a noradrenaline reuptake inhinitor.
- Can increase metabolism and blood flow.
- Works synergistically with caffeine. Caffeine releases adrenaline, and hordenine keeps adrenaline actibe.
- Improves contractility of the heart for better blood flow and nutrient delivery.
Q: What is the best way to use PREV2™?
A: As a dietary supplement, mix 1 scoop (20 grams) in 8-16oz of water and consume 20-30 minutes before exercise. For first timers, begin with a half (1/2) scoop to assess tolerance.
Q: What products stack well with PREV2™?
A: For optimal body composition enhancement, let PREV2™ drive intense workouts and BCAAX™ jumpstart the recovery process while preventing muscle breakdown during training.
Q: How is PREV2™ engineered for perfection?
A: PREV2™ features a full profile of efficaciously dosed ingredients proven to improve all aspects of physical performance, blood flow & vasodilation, and exercise metabolism. PREV2™ also features several ingredients that work synergistically, such as arginine, citrulline, and ornithine. Arginine is a classic NO booster, and when it is metabolized to produce NO, it either becomes citrulline or ornithine. By supplying all three, PREV2™ takes advantage of “backdoor” mechanisms for vasodilation and blood flow resulting in massive improvements where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Many more examples of synergy can be found with PREV2™ - try it and you will see!
Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)
- Woolf, K., & Manore, M. M. (2006). B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 16(5), 453-484.
- Paulin, F. V., Zagatto, A. M., Chiappa, G. R., & de Tarso Müller, P. (2017). Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respiratory medicine, 122, 23-29.
- Lukaski, H. C. (2004). Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 632-644.
- Lövblad, K. O., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., & Schroth, G. (1997). Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B 12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatric radiology, 27(2), 155-158.
- Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Keith, G., & Dirheimer, G. (1991). Effect of cobalamin derivatives on in vitro enzymic DNA methylation: methylcobalamin can act as a methyl donor. Biochemistry, 30(32), 8045-8051.
- Elam, M. B., Hunninghake, D. B., Davis, K. B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., … & Brinton, E. (2000). Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: a randomized trial. Jama,284(10), 1263-1270.
- Goldberg, A., Alagona, P., Capuzzi, D. M., Guyton, J., Morgan, J. M., Rodgers, J., … & Samuel, P. (2000). Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. The American journal of cardiology, 85(9), 1100-1105.
- Guyton, J. R. (2007). Niacin in cardiovascular prevention: mechanisms, efficacy, and safety. Current opinion in lipidology, 18(4), 415-420.
- Blond, E., Rieusset, J., Alligier, M., Lambert-Porcheron, S., Bendridi, N., Gabert, L., ... & Roth, H. (2014). Nicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro study. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 46(06), 390-396.
Pump & Nutrient Absorption Complex
- Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
- Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
- Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
- Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
- Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Li, X., Xu, H., Kong, X., … & Wu, G. (2009). Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino acids, 37(1), 169-175.
- Huk, I., Nanobashvili, J., Neumayer, C., Punz, A., Mueller, M., Afkhampour, K., … & Patton, S. (1997). L-arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation, 96(2), 667-675.
- Yao, K., Yin, Y. L., Chu, W., Liu, Z., Deng, D., Li, T., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary arginine supplementation increases mTOR signaling activity in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. The Journal of nutrition, 138(5), 867-872.
- Jobgen, W., Meininger, C. J., Jobgen, S. C., Li, P., Lee, M. J., Smith, S. B., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces white fat gain and enhances skeletal muscle and brown fat masses in diet-induced obese rats. The Journal of nutrition, jn-108.
- Tseh, W., Cioci, B. W., & Morgan, D. W. (2008). The Effects of Arginine Alpha-ketoglutarate Supplementation on Endurance-trained Females. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(5), S401.
- Rector, T. S., Bank, A. J., Mullen, K. A., Tschumperlin, L. K., Sih, R., Pillai, K., & Kubo, S. H. (1996). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure. Circulation, 93(12), 2135-2141.
- Morikawa, E., Moskowitz, M. A., Huang, Z., Yoshida, T., Irikura, K., & Dalkara, T. (1994). L-arginine infusion promotes nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and reduces infarction volume in the rat. Stroke, 25(2), 429-435.
- Gardiner, S. M., Compton, A. M., Bennett, T., Palmer, R. M., & Moncada, S. (1990). Control of regional blood flow by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Hypertension, 15(5), 486-492.
HydroMax® Glycerol Monostearate
- Bartos, J. (2013). A uniquely optimized, highly concentrated powdered form of glycerol delivering next-level hydration and next-gen product potential http://astromicnutrition.com/HydroMax_WhitePaper.pdf
- Riedesel, M. L., Allen, D. Y., Peake, G. T., & Al-Qattan, K. (1987). Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(6), 2262-2268.
- Lyons, T. P., Riedesel, M. L., Meuli, L. E., & Chick, T. W. (1990). Effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration prior to exercise in the heat on sweating and core temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 477-483.
- Goulet, E. D., Robergs, R. A., Labrecque, S., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2006). Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25 C environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(2), 101-109.
- Montner, P., Stark, D. M., Riedesel, M. L., Murata, G., Robergs, R., Timms, M., & Chick, T. W. (1996). Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time. International journal of sports medicine, 17(1), 27-33.
- Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
- Bouchama, A., Yusuf, A., Al-Sedairy, S., & El-Yazigi, A. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke. Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
- Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
- Baek, Y. Y., Cho, D. H., Choe, J., Lee, H., Jeoung, D., Ha, K. S., ... & Kim, Y. M. (2012). Extracellular taurine induces angiogenesis by activating ERK-, Akt-, and FAK-dependent signal pathways. European journal of pharmacology, 674(2-3), 188-199.
- Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.
- Ahn, S. K., S. Hong, et al. (2011). “Effects of agmatine on hypoxic microglia and activity of nitric oxide synthase.” Brain Res 1373: 48-54.
- Arndt, M. A., V. Battaglia, et al. (2009). “The arginine metabolite agmatine protects mitochondrial function and confers resistance to cellular apoptosis.” Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(6): C1411-1419.
- Berkels, R., D. Taubert, et al. (2004). “Agmatine signaling: odds and threads.” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 22(1): 7-16.
- Gao, Y., B. Gumusel, et al. (1995). “Agmatine: a novel endogenous vasodilator substance.” Life Sci 57(8): PL83-86.
- Haenisch, B., I. von Kugelgen, et al. (2008). “Regulatory mechanisms underlying agmatine homeostasis in humans.” Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295(5): G1104-1110.
- Halaris, A. and J. Plietz (2007). “Agmatine: metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.” CNS Drugs 21(11): 885-900.
- Thams, P., & Capito, K. (1999). L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide. European Journal of Endocrinology, 140(1), 87-93.
- Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.
- Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., & Kajimoto, O. (2008). L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism. Nutrition research, 28(11), 738-743.
- Evain‐Brion, D., Donnadieu, M., Roger, M., & Job, J. C. (1982). Simultaneous study of somatotrophic and corticotrophic pituitary secretions during ornithine infusion test. Clinical endocrinology, 17(2), 119-122.
- MacLean, D. A., Spriet, L. L., Hultman, E., & Graham, T. E. (1991). Plasma and muscle amino acid and ammonia responses during prolonged exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70(5), 2095-2103.
- Sahlin, K., Katz, A., & Broberg, S. (1990). Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 259(5), C834-C841.
- AstraGin Product Dossier, Sections 6.4 – 6.17
- Lu L., et al. Astragalus polysaccharides decrease muscle wasting through Akt/mTOR, ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy signaling in 5/6 nephrectomised rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;186:125-135
Energy & Endurance Complex
- Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
- Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(6), 1162-1173.
- Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 5.
- Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1199-1207.
- Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1804-1815.
- Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(1), 79-87.
- Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43(10), 1972-1978.
- Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients, 4(10), 1441-1453.
Trimethylglycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
- Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., … & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
- Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
- Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., … & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
- Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., … & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
- Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., & Glickman, E. L. (2011). The effects of low-dose caffeine on perceived pain during a grip to exhaustion task. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(5), 1225-1228.
- Bell, D. G., & McLellan, T. M. (2002). Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(4), 1227-1234.
- Schneiker, K. T., Bishop, D., Dawson, B., & Hackett, L. P. (2006). Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent-sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(3), 578-585.
- Del Coso, J., Salinero, J. J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 21.
- Anderson, D. E., & Hickey, M. S. (1994). Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 26(4), 453-458.
- Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., & Madsen, M. R. (2006). Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75‐year old citizens. A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over study. Clinical endocrinology, 65(2), 223-228.
- Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 51(5), 759-767.
Infingergy® (Dicaffeine Malate)
- Sommerfeld, A., & Witherly, S. (2014). S. Patent No. 8,642,095. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Neuro Focus Complex
- Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
- Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
- Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
- Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
- Hoffman, J. R., Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Tranchina, C. P., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2009). Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 2.
N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (Eria Jarensis)
- Zovico, P. V. C., Curty, V. M., Leal, M. A. S., Meira, E. F., Dias, D. V., de Melo Rodrigues, L. C., ... & Barauna, V. G. (2016). Effects of controlled doses of Oxyelite Pro on physical performance in rats. Nutrition & metabolism, 13(1), 90.
- Bloomer, R. J., Mccarthy, C. G., Farney, T. M., & Harvey, I. C. (2011). Effect of caffeine and 1, 3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. Journal of Caffeine Research, 1(3), 169-177.
- Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
- Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
- Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., … & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.
WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/